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Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary Artery Disease

Arteries are the blood vessels that transports the blood pumped away from the heart to the rest of the body. Oxygen demand of all organs is supplied from the blood transported by the arteries. Vessels supplying blood to the heart are called the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are the first branches of the aorta and are divided into two as the right and the left.

Narrowing or blockage of coronary arteries due to various reasons is called as the coronary artery disease. Blood supply decreases or completely stops as a result of narrowing and blockage. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis is also named as arterial stiffness.

Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease

Risk factors for coronary artery disease are subdivided into modifiable and non-modifiable riskfactors. Main risk factors are:

  • Smoking; smoking is the leading modifiable risk factor, which not only negatively affects the overall health but it is also one of the main factor causing coronary artery disease.
  • Hypertension and high blood cholesterol level; this problem can be controlled both by some life-style changes and medical therapy.
  • Sedentary life style; physical activity balances the lipid ratio in the blood and prevents arterial stiffness. Therefore, individuals adopting a sedentary life style are at risk for coronary artery disease.
  • Obesity: Obesity is a problem resulting insignificant level of fat deposits on the patient’s body. Therefore, obese individuals often develop arterial stiffness. It is always required to be at ideal weight through healthy nutrition and regular exercising.
  • Non-modifiable risk factors; male gender, advanced age, family history of coronary artery disease.

Treatment Planning in Coronary Artery Disease

Each patient has a different treatment plan after diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Treatment is planned by assessing not only the symptoms of the disease, number of vessels involved as confirmed by the investigations, degree of stenosis in the vessels but also the heart health, age and overall health status of the patient.

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